Text: Subject: Add
No. English Farsi Pashto Subject
121 markdown: reducing the selling price of a good or service below its original selling price. - - Accounting
122 mark-up: the amount that is added to the cost of a good or service to determine the selling price; often expressed as a percentage of the cost; covers the cost of overhead and contributes to profit. - - Accounting
123 marginal cost/revenue: see incremental cost/revenue - - Accounting
124 margin of safety: the amount a company's sales can drop before they reach the break-even point, that is, before they start to lose money; can be expressed in dollars or units or as a percentage. - - Accounting
125 managerial accounting: a process of interpreting, analyzing and reporting detailed financial and non-financial information to assist internal users (e.g. management) in decision-making; generally, the information provided is future-focused (e.g. budgets) and does not require adherence to GAAP. - - Accounting
126 make or buy decision: involves using relevant revenues and expenses to make a choice between producing a product internally or purchasing it from an external source. - - Accounting
127 major repairs: materially significant expenditures that are capitalized because they increase the future economic benefit of the asset. - - Accounting
128 long-term liabilities: debts that are due after one year from the date of the statement of financial position. - - Accounting
129 long-term assets: also called long-lived assets; tangible, intangible and financial assets that a company expects to hold or to use for longer than one year or the company's operating cycle. - - Accounting
130 leasehold improvements: capital expenditures for additions and/or renovations to leased property that are paid for by the lessee but revert to the lessor at the end of the lease term. Leasehold improvements are recorded as a capital asset by the lessee, and should be depreciated over the term of the lease, or the useful life of the asset (whichever is shorter). - - Accounting
131 lease back: a situation in which one party (seller-lessee) sells an asset to the second party (purchaser-lessor) and then immediately leases the asset back; could be considered a form of financing. - - Accounting
132 lease: a contract between two parties whereby one party (the lessee) receives the right to use an asset owned by the other party (the lessor) for a specific period of time (the term) in exchange for periodic payments. - - Accounting
133 last-in, first out (LIFO): an inventory valuation method that assumes the inventory items purchased or produced last are the first items sold; during times of inflation results in a higher cost of goods sold (lower tax) and an undervaluation of ending inventory; not allowed under IFRS. - - Accounting
134 just-in-time (JIT): a system in which production time and costs are minimized by not delivering raw materials, components and parts etc. to the manufacturing process until the time they are actually required (JIT manufacturing system); or inventory carrying costs are minimized because products are not produced until they have been ordered (JIT inventory system). - - Accounting
135 joint products: two or more distinct products that appear at exactly the same time from a single production process; products can be individually identified at the split-off point, which is the point where the single process ends. - - Accounting